In a speech on the 2016 presidential campaign, Republican Party candidate Donald Trump promised to withdraw the United States from the Trans-Pacific Partnership if elected. He argued that the agreement would “undermine” the U.S. economy and its independence.   On November 21, 2016, in a video message, Trump outlined an economic strategy to “put America first” and said he would “negotiate fair bilateral trade agreements that will bring jobs and industry back to U.S. shores.” As part of the plan, Trump confirmed his intention to see the United States withdraw from the Trans-Pacific Partnership for his first day in office.    McConnell argued that the TPP would not be taken into account at the lame meeting of the congress ducks before Trump`s inauguration.  A 2016 study by political scientists Todd Allee and Andrew Lugg of the University of Maryland found that of the 74 previous trade agreements signed by TPP members since 1995, the TPP text is closest to that of previous U.S. trade agreements.  A 2017 study showed that the TPP has gained great value over other trade agreements in terms of a government`s ability to freely adopt and implement rules in certain areas of law and order.  The Peterson Institute for International Economics argues that “the isYS provisions in the TPP are a significant improvement over previous agreements.”  PiIE notes that the ISDS mechanism in the TPP complies with environmental, health and safety rules; Ensure transparency in litigation procedures and eliminates shopping in the forum.
 PIIE asserts that some of the innovations contained in the TPP`s ISDS rules “are generally rejected by the U.S. business community.”  Piie asserts that ISDS rules are necessary because they stimulate investment: “Empirical evidence has shown that contracts, including these provisions, have a positive impact on foreign direct investment flows between signatory countries.”  PIIE challenges the assertion that ISDS “lacks integrity to arbitrators” and finds that arbitrators take an oath of impartiality and elect both parties in a case to arbitrators.  PiIE agrees that secrecy has gone too far in many ISDS cases, but notes that “TPP negotiators have opened up greater transparency to these criticisms” and ISDS cases.  The original TPP contained measures to reduce non-tariff and tariff barriers and to establish an investor-state dispute settlement mechanism (ISDR).   THE U.S. International Trade Commission, the Peterson Institute for International Economics, the World Bank and the Office of the Chief Economist at Global Affairs Canada found that the final agreement would lead to positive economic outcomes for all signatories if ratified, while an analysis with an alternative methodology by two Tufts University economists found that the agreement would have a negative impact on signatories. [Note 1] Many observers have argued that the trade agreement would have served a geopolitical purpose, namely to reduce the dependence of signatories on Chinese trade and to bring the signatories closer to the United States.     A version of the treaty text “subject to legal review” was published by potential contracting parties on 5 November 2015.
 Parts of the draft comprehensive agreements have been disclosed to the public in advance.  Many of the provisions contained in the leaked documents are imbued with previous trade agreements. [Citation required] The Asia-Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA), formerly known as the Bangkok Agreement and renamed on November 2, 2005, was signed in 1975.