APEC has been criticized for its lack of a clear definition or utility. According to the organization, it is “the most important forum for economic growth, cooperation, trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region,” which was created to “further enhance the economic growth and prosperity of the region and strengthen the Asia-Pacific community.” However, it is questionable whether it has achieved something constructive, particularly from the point of view of European countries that cannot be part of APEC. Since NAFTA eliminated taxes on goods traded between the United States, Canada and Mexico, Mexico has been buying more products from the United States. It has saved U.S. companies the cost of selling products in Mexico and saved Mexican companies the cost of buying items from U.S. companies. On 1 December 2009, the Lisbon Treaty came into force and reformed many aspects of the EU. In particular, it has changed the legal structure of the EU, merged its three-pillar system into a single legal entity with legal personality and created a permanent president of the European Council. The European Union (EU) was formally created when the Maastricht Treaty – whose main architects were Helmut Kohl and François Mitterrand – came into force on 1 November 1993. The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 Member States, mainly located in Europe.
Its de facto capital is Brussels. In 2004, the EU experienced its largest enlargement to date, with the entry into its ranks of Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. On 9 December 2011, Croatia signed the EU accession treaty, making it the 28th Member State from July 2013. NAFTA has created five ways to deal with the U.S.-China trade war to remove trade and investment barriers between the United States, Canada and Mexico. With the implementation of NAFTA, tariffs on more than half of Mexico`s exports to the United States and more than a third of the United States were immediately eliminated. Exports to Mexico. Within 10 years of implementation, all U.S.-Mexican tariffs would be eliminated, with the exception of some U.S. agricultural exports, which are expected to expire within 15 years. NAFTA also aims to remove non-tariff barriers and protect the intellectual property rights of products.
Mercosur`s objective is to promote free trade and the fluidity of trade in goods, people and currencies. The official languages are Guarané, Portuguese and Spanish. Mercosur acts as a comprehensive customs union and works towards an ongoing process of South American integration into the Union of South American Nations. The program also proposed Gaucho as a currency for regional trade. The rapid growth of trade between nations has led to the agreement being recognised as a fundamental basis for Member States to respect certain rules and rules as signatories to the agreement. As a result, the WTO has expanded its mission to trade in services, investment, intellectual property, health measures, plant health, agriculture and textiles, as well as technical barriers to trade.  Additional ancillary agreements have been reached to allay concerns about the potential effects of the treaty on the labour market and the environment. Critics feared that U.S.
and Canadian companies in Mexico would have generally low wages, which would lead to a shift of production to Mexico and a rapid reduction in manufacturing employment in the United States and Canada. Meanwhile, environmentalists were concerned about the potentially catastrophic effects of rapid industrialization in Mexico, which does not have experience in implementing and enforcing environmental legislation. Possible environmental problems were raised in the North American Environmental Cooperation Agreement (NAAEC), which established the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) in 1994.